Author Topic: Aphrodisiacs  (Read 560 times)


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« on: November 07, 2022, 04:26:53 PM »
I feel aphrodisiacs are a neglected part of POIS research even though possibly being the most important one. A comprehensive list is a necessity to be able to make comparative POIS tests, so I tried to remedy this shortage. Fortunately some good studies can be found on the issue, so the collection wasn’t too difficult. I have already tested quite a few of the mentioned aphrodisiacs and though they have varying efficacy, they clearly have a positive impact on my case. I can imagine that some of us would try to avoid these, which of course is not too difficult, as most of these are rather rare, possibly with the exception of some spices that may easily occur in some processed foods and some common cooking ingredients like onion and garlic. Well even in my case there seems to be some inconsistencies, e.g. I had a bad reaction to lemongrass, but still many of the best remedies are clearly on this list as well.

It is worth to note that the part of the plant responsible for the aphrodisiac activity may be not the most readily available. For example in the case of hibiscus the indicated parts are the leaves, however only the petals are sold on the market and I also did not have a good reaction to that, but well who knows. Some additional examples could be: pigeon pea (root), Capsicum (seeds), Mango (bark), Poppy plant (flower). While minimally effective others had better results with things like fenugreek, garlic, galangal, curcuma, neem, nutmeg or Goji berry, so individualized combinations could be more effective. There are also some that I haven’t yet tried, but others had some success with, like okra, coriander or castor, which also affirms the likely involvement and probable benefit of these supplements.

As a mode of mechanism some of the aphrodisiacs probably increase testosterone, but I find it a bit hard to believe that everything would. Given the list of estrogen receptor beta agonists I really suspect their involvement as well, however to date I couldn’t find any studies that would confirm an aphrodisiac activity.
Of course NRF2 activation could be involved as well.

In the first list I tried to only include those that may be found on online markets and are not outright indicated as very poisonous. Still please be aware that some of these may be toxic and combinations can be unpredictable.

- Okra (root, seed)
- Sweet flag (rhizome)
- Garlic chives (seed)
- Garlic (bulb)
- Onion (bulb)
- Aloe vera (gel from leaves)
- Java galangal (rhizome)
- Pellitory (root)
- Shatavari (root)
- Peanut (seed)
- Jackfruit (fruit, seed, leaves, root)
- Neem (root)
- Bacopa (whole plant)
- Bauchinia (bark)
- Ash gourd (fruit)
- Punarnava (root)
- Fingerroot (rhizomes)
- Shivlingi (seed)
- Pigeon pea (root)
- Papaya (fruit)
- Cannabis (leaf)
- Capsicum (seed)
- Septicweed (leaf)
- Intellect plant (seed)
- White goosefoot (seed)
- Musli (whole plant)
- Cocculus (stem, leaf, root)
- Coconut (endosperm)
- Kola nut (seed, fruit)
- Guggul / Commiphora (root, leaf)
- Coriander (leaf)
- Saffron (stigma)
- Turmeric (rhizome)
- Lemongrass (whole plant)
- Wild carrot (root)
- Desmodium (root)
- Wild yam (whole plant)
- Flat bean (seed)
- Durian (fresh fruit)
- Echinacea (leaves)
- Emblic or Indian gooseberry (fruit)
- Euphorbia hirta (leaves)
- Tongkat Ali (whole plant)
- Shankhahuli (whole plant)
- Fadogia agrestis / Black Aphrodisiac (stem)
- Lebanese viagra (root)
- Paras pipal (bark)
- Cluster fig (fruit)
- Sacred fig (bark)
- Garcinia / Bitter Kola (bark)
- Gmelina / Coomb teak (fruit)
- Indian sherbet berry (fruit)
- Hibiscus / China rose (leaf)
- Roselle (seed, leaf)
- Holostemna
- Marsh barbel (root, leaf, seed)
- Thai ginseng/black ginger (rhizomes)
- Bottle gourd (fruit)
- Flax (seed)
- Goji (berry)
- Maca (root)
- Mango (bark)
- Arrowroot (rhizome)
- Massularia chewing stick / Pako Ijebu (stem)
- Microdesmis keayana / Senegal (roots)
- Bitter melon (leaf)
- White’s ginger (root)
- Zoapatle (whole plant)
- Mucuna pruriens (seed)
- Nutmeg (seed)
- African basil / Clove basil (leaves)
- Panax ginseng (root)
- Wild passionflower (leaf)
- Poppy plant (flower)
- Yohimbine (bark)
- Suma (root)
- Large caltrops (whole plant)
- Phyllanthus emblica (fruit)
- West African pepper / Ashanti Pepper (root)
- Piper officinarum (fruit)
- Solomon’s seal (root)
- Almond (kernel)
- Psoralea corylifolia (fruit)
- Muira puama (bark, root)
- Pomegranate (fruit)
- Rose damascence (petal)
- Castor (seed)
- Sandal wood (heart wood)
- Long pepper (fruit)
- Sesame (seeds)
- Nightshade
- Clove (dried flower bud)
- Iboga
- Tamarind (bark)
- Arjuna (bark)
- Giloy (whole plant)
- Tribulus terrestris (fruit, seed)
- Pointed gourd (seed)
- Damiana (leaf)
- Clavo huasca (bark)
- Valeriana jatamansi (root)
- Ashwagandha (leaf, root)
- Ginger (rhizome)

In a native language herbal lexicon I also found some more, although some of these have been already mentioned (very toxic ones were excluded):
- Cumin
- Arugula/Rocket (Eruca sativa)
- Bigroot geranium
- Jasmine
- Muira puama
- Watercress
- White waterlily
- Canadian/American ginseng (Panax quinquefolius)
- Paronychia argentea
- Yohimbe
- Psoralea corylifolia
- Common rue
- Sesame
- Sarsaparilla / Smilax china / China root
- Tribulus
- Damiana
- Ashwagandha
- Cantharis tincture

Another list with some new elements and a kind of classification:

There are six main classes of herbal aphrodisiacs — organized by their general mechanism of action.
1. Aromatic Aphrodisiacs — work through volatile oils of plants to activate the limbic system of the brain
2. Adaptogenic Aphrodisiacs — work by promoting optimal health to promote our natural desire to procreate
3. Nutritional Aphrodisiacs — work by providing the raw materials to build sex hormones and other compounds related to procreation
4. Sexual stimulants — work by directly stimulating one or more processes involved with sexual desire or function
5. Nervine aphrodisiacs — work through the nervous system, usually via the vagus nerve which controls our reproductive organs
6. Energetic aphrodisiacs — these are the traditional aphrodisiacs that are explained through energetic medical systems

- Deer Or Elk Antler Velvet
- Catuaba
- Jatropha
- Rosewood
- Date palm (pollen)
- Pine pollen
- Ibhucu
- Jamzad
- Love Vine
- Indian Almond (Terminalia catappa)
- Ginkgo biloba
- Schizandra chinensis berry
- Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium)
- Siberian Ginseng
- Vanilla
- Rose essential oil
- Ylang Ylang
- Cashew
- Pineapple
- Dong quai
- Malabar Spinach
- Tamamuri
- Watermelon
- Cinnamon
- Cordyceps
- Chinese dodder
- Chinese yam
- Dendrobium
- Ho shou wu
- Huanarpo macho
- Guarana
- Peach
- Chinese foxglove
- Picho huayo

The most common plants used in Arabic medicine for aphrodisiac action are:
- Trigonella foenum / Fenugreek
- Eurica sativa / Arugula
- Clematis cirrhosa
- Pistacia palasestina / Palestine Pistachio
- Zingiber officinale / Ginger
- Smilax aspera / Sarsaparille
- Salvia dominica / Dominica sage
- Nasturtium officinale / Watercress
- Raphanus raphanistrum / Wild radish
- Poenix dactylifera / Date palm
- Allium cepa / Onion

- Ferula asafoetida

- Hawthorn (Crataegus spp.) berry

- Chios mastic (Pistacia lentiscus) and zinc

- Blue lotus flower and Indian lotus

- Truffles
The cause is probably the senescence of sexual organs and resultant inducible SASP, which also acts as a kind of non-diabetic metabolic syndrome.


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Re: Aphrodisiacs
« Reply #1 on: November 08, 2022, 03:45:35 AM »
Some of these may increase blood pressure, so combinations should be checked for possible adverse interactions.
The cause is probably the senescence of sexual organs and resultant inducible SASP, which also acts as a kind of non-diabetic metabolic syndrome.


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Re: Aphrodisiacs
« Reply #2 on: May 19, 2023, 03:37:48 PM »
Some other aphrodisiacs or further information on them.

Chaco’n de popovicio et al., stated that, maca contains a chemical called pmethoxybenzyl isothiocyanates, which reputedly has aphrodisiac properties Maca increased blood levels of progesterone in female mice because it contains saponins which play a very important role in sex hormones. Saponins have been shown to normalize hormone secretion and have been used to treat sexual dysfunction. Due to these actions, saponins are called adaptogens.

- Beetroot

- Salep -  a beverage from a kind of Turkish orchid root

- Baobab

Mad honey, although potentially toxic

Gray/Mexican sarsaparilla (Smilax aristolochiifolia)
It is reported to have anti-inflammatory, testosterogenic, aphrodisiac and progesterogenic effects.

Jatropha macrantha Müll. Arg. is also known as “huanarpo macho” in Peru and considered a medicinal plant potentially as aphrodisiac. Other studies refer a bronchodilator effect, antimelanogenic, antiinflammatory, inhibitor of nuclear factor–kB and hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in tumor cells, modulatory of estradiol, progesterone and testosterone, antioxidant and inhibitory of aldose reductase.

One famous mixture, Catuama, is a combination of Trichilia catigua (Catuaba), Paullinia cupana (Guarana), Ptychopetalum olacoides (Muira Puama), and Zingiber officinalis (ginger). It has been used since the 1980s for a variety of disorders including mental fatigue, neuromuscular asthenia, and weakness disorders. Various studies have been conducted on this formula, and most have showed strong synergy between these botanicals.

Cistanche’s Aphrodisiac Effect:
- Increases sex hormone concentrations by inducing testicular steroidogenic enzymes
- Changes gene expression of genes responsible for testosterone synthesis
- Increases number of germ cells
- Reduces latency period in-between erections
- Improves testes function
- Vaso-relaxing properties

Cistanche salsa extract (fraction where phenylethanoid glycosides are the main components) and its components echinacoside and acteoside have been reported to have an activity to improve sexual ability. Cistanche Tubulosa is expected to perform a similar activity because it belongs to the same family as Cistanche salsa and contains larger amounts of effective components.
In the specimen from the Cistanche Tubulosa extract administration group, the expression of 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3B-HSD), which is involved in testosterone, was enhanced by 1.5 times. The expression of the genes of steroid 5a-reductase 2 and aldo-keto reductase, which the synthesis of dihydrotestosterone, doubled.

Daily consumption of barley grass powder promotes sleep; regulates blood sugar and pressure; enhances immunity and liver function; detoxifies acne skin; improves gastrointestinal function; prevents constipation; has anticancer and anti-inflammatory effects; alleviates atopic dermatitis; loses weight and hypolipidemic; reduces gout and hyperuricemia; prevents heart disease; has bone injury recovery, lustihood, and anti-fatigue effects; repairs memory; has antiaging effect; and so on.

- Saffron

The green color of absinthe is caused by oil of wormwood, anise (Pimpinella anisum), elecampane (Inula helenium), majoram (Origanum majorana), and several other herbs. This mixture has an aphrodisiacal effect on both sexes, and acts much like a narcotic.

As an herbal medicine, fennel is reputed to increase milk secretion, promote menstruation, facilitate birth, ease the male climacteric, and increase libido.

The aphrodisiac effect of Coriandrum sativum might be due to its high content of vitamin A whereas Coriander provides 6748 IU of vitamin A per 100 g, about 225% of recommended daily intake. Coriandrum sativum appeared to be stimulant to the process of spermatogenesis since the increments in the diameters of the seminiferous tubules and thickness of their germinal epithelia in the coriander treated rats were highly significant.

Ethnomedical use of celery as an aphrodisiac herb, along with the evidence from animal and in-vitro studies suggest that celery may be an effective treatment for female sexual dysfunction. Previous animal studies have shown the celery could increase testosterone level, which is the main hormone responsible for increasing libido in men and women. In this study, we found that the administration of celery seed for a 6- week period can significantly improve sexual function among women by increasing sexual desire, arousal, lubrication and by relieving pain during intercourse.

Lovage (Levisticum officinale) is a versatile medical, aromatic and spice plant of the family Apiaceae. Its extract has the ability to decrease blood pressure, to support digestion and bile secretion, to regulate irregular menstrual cycle and to act as a gentle aphrodisiac.

Apicius advised a concoction of pine nuts mixed with honey, onions, mustard and pepper as a sexual stimulant. Galen suggested the use of pine nuts mixed with honey and almonds and taken consecutively for three nights. Today, pine nuts are still considered an aphrodisiac in the Mediterranean and the East. Walnuts were also connected with fertility. The nut’s genus, Juglans, translates as the glans of Jupiter. The Ebers papyrus lists "besbes seeds" (fennel seeds) as a potent aphrodisiac. Followers of Dionysus wore crowns of fennel leaves during his festivals, and used its leaves and seeds as aphrodisiacs. The herbs mugwort and woodworm were sacred to Artemis, and Chamomile was connected to the Egyptians and the Norse god Balder the Beautiful. All were used to enhance fertility. Mandrake, which is mentioned in the Bible, was believed to stimulate sexual activity and effectiveness. A native Mediterranean plant, it was sacred to Egyptians and used in the East to cure sterility. It could be used fresh for use in love potions, or dried and used to charm. Romans used valerian to prepare an erotic ointment. But Germans later believed that chewing valerian and kissing someone with the herb still in the mouth, would ensure the recipient's love.

Anacardium occidentale L. (Anacardiaceae) - Kajutaka (S.) Kashumavu (Mal.) Cashew nut tree (Eng.)
The kernel is edible and aphrodisiac.

University’s medical school who had testified in opposition to the drug, said that flibanserin was a mediocre aphrodisiac with some side effects. And marketing won out over science.
Arginmax  (L-arginine, ginseng, gingko, damiana) - improvements in sexual desire and satisfaction, frequency of intercourse.

MTEC (a formulated herbal drug; consists of the aqueous-methanol extract of Musa paradisiaca, Tamarindus indica, Eugenia jambolana and Coccinia indica) given to animals at the dose of 600 mg/kg twice daily for 14 days increased animal body weight, testicular index, testosterone level, and the sperm count and viability. It also increased the activity of 3- and 17-beta-hydroxydehydrogenases and antioxidant parameters.

Moderate and controlled doses of mistletoe extract increases serum levels of FSH, LH and testosterone but decreases prolactin concentrations, which could enhance reproductive functions in normal persons and those with loss-of reproductive function.

Powdered mistletoe leaves have been used to bring good fortune, to treat nervous system disorders, and as male aphrodisiacs.

Various studies have proven that herbs have multiple activities related to erectile dysfunction, such as reducing intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, increasing testosterone levels, increasing cAMP expression, and relieving oxidative stress. Piper retrofractum Vahl., known as Java chili, grows in Southeast Asia, especially in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand. Traditionally the fruit is used for stimulants, carminatives, and tonics. P. retrofractum in Indonesia is used as a drink to improve sleep and aphrodisiac. Piper nigrum L., or black pepper, has energetic, sweaty, carminative, and stimulant properties. Empirically used to cure colic, flatulence, dyspepsia, hemorrhoids, and as an aphrodisiac, especially for conditions of sexual weakness or desires for depression. Piper cubeba L., known in Indonesia as kemukus, grows on Java, Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and other islands in the Indian Ocean. Traditionally, kemukus has been used to treat gonorrhea, dysentery, syphilis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, enteritis, and asthma. Like other pepper, kemukus is also used as an aphrodisiac. It can be assumed that piperine is not the only constituent responsible for the aphrodisiac activity of the extract; other compounds may have a synergistic effect.

Grains of Paradise (Aframomum melegueta [Rosco] K. Schum.) (GP), are known as Guinea pepper or Alligator pepper. Diarylheptanoids isolated from Aframomum melegueta showed anti-estrogenic activity as compared through in silico approaches.
Shamloul has reported on some plant-derived aphrodisiacs with limited scientific studies making it difficult to validate their aphrodisiac properties. The list includes Camellia sinensis, a Chinese tea which has been shown to increase sexual behavior in rats by inhibiting anxiety and elevating serum testosterone levels. Aframomum melegueta (Guinea pepper) is a spice from the ginger family obtained from the seeds of the plant. It has been shown to increase rat sexual behavior and improve penile erection. Curculigo orchioides (Kali Musli) is claimed to enhance sexual behavior and erection in male rats. The African tropical plant Microdesmis keayana has also shown increased sexual arousal and erectile function in rats treated with its alkaloid extracts. The tropical legume Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean), the Indonesian flowering plant Eurycoma longifolia Jack (Tongkat Ali), and the Asian flowering plant Ferula harmonis (Zallouh Root) have also showed similar effects on male rats as the studies discussed above. Other plants with traditional uses as aphrodisiacs include Terminalia catappa seeds (Indian almond), Garcina kola root (bitter kola), Carpolobia alba bark, Euphorbia hirta plant, Musa paradisiaca plantain, and Damiana tea (Turnera aphrodisiaca). A scientific literature search shows animal studies on T. catappa and T. aphrodisiaca (Damiana tea) only, with unclear results regarding aphrodisiac activities of each.

Cordyceps genus is also known as Himalayan Viagra due to its positive effects on sexual stamina enhancement. Cordyceps stimulated steroidogenesis through both PKA and PKC signal transduction pathways, therefore could be utilized to modulate sexual efficacy. Moreover, utilizing the treatment of cordycepin, an active ingredient of Cordyceps extract, in an experiment upon Male Sprague-Dawley rats have shown dose-dependent elevation in epididymal weight, sperm motility, and movement, well-arranged spermatogonia, densely packed cellular material, along with increased number of mature spermatozoa in the seminiferous lumen. The results further demonstrate that supplementation of Cordyceps mycelium improves sperm quality as well as quantity in subfertile boars which further supports the role of Cordyceps in the enhancement of aphrodisiac properties. In conclusion, the genus of this sac fungus has the potential to modulate reproductive activity and restore the impaired reproductive function by directly affecting the release of sexual hormones such as testosterone from Leydig cells and estrogen and progesterone from granulosa or theca cells.

During the historic times Lytta vesicatoria, Tribulus terrestris, Ptychopetalum olacoides, Crocus sativus, Bufo marinus, Myristica fragrans, Theobroma cocao and other plants have been investigated for its aphrodisiac activity by in vivo and in vitro model. A variety of botanicals such as Tribulus terrestris (T. terrestris), Aframomum melegueta, Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia), Cnidium monnieri, Ferula harmonis, Mucuna pruriens (M. pruriens), Lepidium meyenii (L. meyenii), Passiflora incarnate and some compounds like yohimbine were reported to have a potential effect on the sexual functions.
Medicinal plant having aphrodisiac properties: Allium sativum, Allium tuberosum, Alpinia calcarata, Anacyclus pyrethrum, Asparagus racemosus, Bidens frondosa, Blepharis edulis, Caesalpinia benthamiana, Chenopodium album, Chlorophytum borivilianum, Camellia sinensis, Crocus sativus, Catha edulis, Casimiroa edulis, Curculigo orchioides, Durio zibethinus, Diodia scandens, Eurycoma longifolia, Helminthostachys zeylanica, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kaempferia parviflora, Lepidium meyenii, Litsea chinensis, Lycium barbarum, Microdesmis keayana, Montanoa tomentosa, Mucuna pruriens, Mondia whitei, Massularia acuminata, Myristica fragrans, Ocimum gratissimum, Pedalium murex, Passiflora incarnata, Peganum harmala, Syzygium aromaticum, Tricholepis glaberrima, Tribulus terrestris, Trichopus zeylanicus, Turnera diffusa, Terminalia catappa, Vanda tessellata.

Eragrostis tremula Hochst. ex Steud. is an annual grass and a member of Poaceae family. It is commonly called "Love grass" in English, and in Nigerian languages as "Burburwa" (Hausa), "Ariran" (Yoruba), "Dutaleho" (Fulfulde) and "Berberinoa" (Nupe). E. tremula is used in ethno-medicine as a lactation stimulant, aphrodisiac, memory enhancer and antidote to snake bites. Previously, the plant extract has been shown to contain important phytochemical constituents (alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and triterpenes) with memory enhancing potentials and found useful in the management of cognitive deficit.

- Mezcal Worm
Adding larvae to Mexican beverages and foods (salts, garnishes, powders, etc.) is driven by health benefits and by beliefs that these larvae contain aphrodisiac properties.

Some traditional Indian remedies from Chile.
- Marchantia berteroana infusion is a strong love potion.
- Araucaria araucana - Seeds used as appetite stimulants and galactogogues, considered aphrodisiac.
- Cultha andicolu Gay (ind) Mellico Inf leaves is reckoned to be an aphrodisiac.
- Tropaeolum (nasturtiums) speciosum Poepp. and Endl. (ind) Rere-Zahuen Lf jce considered an aphrodisiac for both sexes.

Species       Family    Part             Uses
- Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Malvaceae Seed, root, bark, Hypothermic, analgesic and aphrodisiac
- Euphorbia hirta Euphorbiaceae Roots, leaves Diuretic and aphrodisiac
- Ipomoea carnea Convolvulaceae Roots, leaves Aphrodisiac and galactogenic
- Sida cordifolia Malvaceae Seed, root, bark Antiparalytic and aphrodisiac
« Last Edit: May 19, 2023, 11:09:01 PM by Progecitor »
The cause is probably the senescence of sexual organs and resultant inducible SASP, which also acts as a kind of non-diabetic metabolic syndrome.


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Re: Aphrodisiacs
« Reply #3 on: June 11, 2023, 11:13:21 AM »
Some thoughts on anaphrodisiacs

Comparatively there is less information on anaphrodisiacs (anti-aphrodisiacs) than aphrodisiacs, but they still deserve consideration in line with POIS. The matter is also a bit controversial possibly due to the lack of clear definitions on the specific aspects of sexual behavior. Aphrodisiacs are said to improve libido and desire, however considering a real life setting, I would regard over-excitability as a detriment to sexual performance as it could lower the intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT) and thus sexual endurance. Certainly testosterone is the main hormone affecting the male sexual behavior, however estrogens are also shown to play an important role in the process.

Anaphrodisiac substances that may serve to reduce hypersexuality:
- ethanol (alcohol) and tobacco
- opioids (e.g.  morphine, heroin, and hydrocodone)
- antidepressant medications (mostly SSRIs)
- antiandrogens - androgen receptor antagonists (e.g.  cyproterone acetate, medroxyprogesterone acetate, the LHRH agonist leuprolide, finasteride, spironolactone, benperidol)
- estrogens (in men) as they decrease testosterone

Some natural putative anaphrodisiacs:
- Chasteberry
- Common rue
- Mashua
- Boldo
- White lily
- Licorice

The mechanism of the active component of some plant-based anaphrodisiacs may be the inhibition of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of sex-hormone precursors into androstenedione, which promotes the reduction of sexual urges. Studies have demonstrated that some of these products inhibit 17beta-HSD and 17,20-lyase, which catalyzes the conversion of 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to androstenedione to testosterone.
The amino acid 5-HTP, or 5-hydroxytryptophan, has been anecdotally reported to be a mild anaphrodisiac, as has the serotonergic empathogen MDMA, popularly known as "ecstasy". However, systematic study of these chemicals is lacking, due to the off-patent nature of 5-HTP, and the legal control of MDMA. In addition, other serotonergic euphoriant drugs, like the psychedelic LSD, have been reportedly used to drastically increase sexual pleasure. MDMA in combination with a PDE5 inhibitor (trade names Viagra, Levitra, and Cialis) is termed "sextasy". This combination increases libido and performance simultaneously. A PDE5 inhibitor taken alone has no effect on sex drive, suggesting that serotonergic euphoriants like MDMA may actually increase libido while decreasing performance, similar to alcohol.
A 2003 study has found that glycyrrhizin, the compound in liquorice root, can lower levels of testosterone. The findings back up a previous study about the hormonal effects of liquorice (whose results could not be replicated in other studies in the past). The Iranian scientists came to the conclusion that the regular consumption of liquorice can lower libido in men.

For a longer list of AR antagonists see this thread:

Treatments used in the management of premature ejaculation could be considered as being anaphrodisiacs.

17beta-estradiol facilitates heterodimerization of kappa and mu opioid receptors via a membrane estrogen receptor dependent process. Opioid peptides exert antiestrogenic effects by interfering with AP-1-driven transcription.

We found opposite androgen regulation of ERa mRNA compared to ERB mRNA where ERa mRNA was down-regulated by DHT and ERB mRNA was up-regulated by testosterone and DHT. When co-expressed with ERa, via heterodimerization with ERa, ERB can exert an inhibitory effect on ERa-mediated gene expression and in many instances opposes the actions of ERa. Our results suggest that testosterone may co-ordinate simultaneous changes in sex-steroid receptors to increase responsiveness to testosterone through AR and ERB and reduce responsiveness through ERa via decreased ERa and increased ERB mRNAs.

Patients with low estradiol below 42.6 pg/ml had more patients complaining of low libido. Patients with higher estradiol levels above 42.6 pg/ml had less sexual dysfunction problems identified by their providers. E2 appears to play a key role in the negative feedback control of testosterone.

The reported synergism between androgens and estrogens in restoring libido and ejaculation after postpuberal castration of male pigs or establishing libido and ejaculation after prepuberal castration suggests that mating behavior might be adversely affected by reduced endogenous estrogens resulting from inhibition of testicular aromatase.

Activation of ERa increased the expression of appetitive aspects of male behavior while both ERa and ERB agonists, separately, enhanced the performance of the initial behavior patterns in the copulatory sequence. Male sexual behavior can be divided into an appetitive and a consummatory component.

ERa-null males exhibit severely reduced numbers of mounts, thrusts and intromissions, and very few ejaculate. ERB appeared to be a major determinant of antianxiety behaviors in female mice, and, in a transient manner, of aggressive behaviors in male mice. ERB was also reported to be involved in male mouse brain defeminization. We found that ERB is required for a normal sexual behavior in males that display delayed ejaculation, and in females that exhibit decreased receptivity and attractivity. However, the medial preoptic area and the paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus appear to have excitatory influences on ejaculation. The neurotransmitters in these pathways are dopamine and oxytocin, respectively. Several pieces of evidence suggest an involvement of ERB in the regulation of dopamine D2 receptor, dopamine transporters (DAT), and oxytocin.

It is somewhat controversial that the p-methoxybenzyl isothiocyanates found in maca are considered aphrodisiac while the p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate in Tropaeolum tuberosum is the opposite.

Tropaeolum tuberosum (Mashua) is an edible-tuber-producing cultigen of the Andes mountains. T. tuberosum subsp. tuberosum contains p-methoxybenzyl glucosinolate as its major secondary metabolite. The putative anti-aphrodisiac activity of T. tuberosum was examined in male rats fed a diet containing tubers of this taxon. Experimental animals and controls showed equal capability in impregnating females, although animals fed T. tuberosum showed a 45% drop in their blood levels of testosterone/dihydrotestosterone. This decrease appears to be related to the presence of isothiocyanates in the tubers. Feeding studies of female guinea pigs and in vitro studies to test the 17beta-estradiol binding inhibition of plant extracts and of pure isothiocyanates failed to substantiate any estrogenic activity of these taxa. However, preliminary results suggest that N,N-di-(methoxy-4-benzyl)thiourea competitively inhibits estradiol binding and may have estrogenic activity.

Mashua has putative anaphrodisiac effects. It has been recorded by the Spanish chronicler Cobo that mashua was fed to their armies by the Inca Emperors, "that they should forget their wives". Studies of male rats fed on mashua tubers have shown a 45% drop in testosterone levels due to the presence of isothiocyanates. Mashua contains Docosatetraenoylethanolamide, a cannabinoid structurally similar to Anandamide that also acts on the cannabinoid (CB1) receptor among other structurally related compounds such as N–oleoyldopamine.

These results suggest that Cryptolepis sanguinolenta possesses anti-androgenic and anti-spermatogenic properties with potential anti-aphrodisiac activity.

Experimental evidence of the anaphrodisiac activity of Humulus lupulus L. in naive male rats.
It is also reputed to exert an anaphrodisiac effect but it is still lacking the experimental evidence of this activity. Humulus lupulus extract exerted an anaphrodisiac effect only in naive rats by inhibiting their mounting and ejaculating behavior. The presence of 8-prenylnarigenin (8-PN) in the extract could be only partially involved in the observed anaphrodisiac effect. The estrogenic property of 8-PN was confirmed in different in vivo experiments. At our knowledge the effect of 8-PN in male rats was never investigated; only one study performed in vitro (a yeast-based androgen receptor assay) showed an anti-androgenic activity of 8-PN.

Vitex agnus castus has a long tradition as a herbal remedy and was used in ancient times not only as an anaphrodisiac but also against diverse disturbances of the female genital system. The major constituents in V. agnus-castus are flavonoids, essential oils, diterpenes, and glycosides. The flavonoids (casticin, quercetagetin, and isovitexin) have been shown in vitro to affect estrogen receptors. V. agnus-castus could be used to treat acne, digestive complaints, menstrual irregularities, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), mastalgia, and infertility, and also for lactation support.

Developed as a substitute for iodine, bromides were thought to be an anaphrodisiac. They were incidentally reported to cause seizure reduction in women who had epilepsy.

The first listed activity for sage is anaphrodisiac.

Evaluation of analgesic and antioxidant potential of ethanolic extract of Nymphaea alba rhizome
It contains the active alkaloids nupharine and nymphaeine, and is a sedative and an aphrodisiac/anaphrodisiac depending on sources. The root of the plant was used by monks and nuns for hundreds of years as an anaphrodisiac, being crushed and mixed with wine.

Monks, for example, grew rue, "the herb of grace", in their monastic gardens to dampen their arousal. Nuns, however, stayed away from the same plant because it was supposed to have the opposite effect in women. Instead of rue, they ate water lily to help them get over any feelings or acts that would damn their souls. Today there is very little demand for anaphrodisiacs. One exception is in the case of sexual offenders who sometimes agree to take drugs such as the antiandrogen, cyproterone, to decrease sexual arousal.

It is worth mentioning that pinocembrin (found in black poplar) and acteoside (found in verbena) are both testosterone boosters and ERbeta agonists as well.

To restrain sexual intercourse:
- camphor: Camphor was said to cut off coitus. Camphor is the product of a tree, Cinnamomum camphora, the wood or young shoots of which is steam-distilled.
- willow or poplar: Again, if anyone eat the best part (florem) of the willow or poplar he will effectively cool all the lust in himself by continued usage.
- vervain (Verbena): Vervain drunk will not permit the penis to go stiff.
- columbine: Extinguishes lust in the testicle. The New English Dictionary, which cite columbine as Aquilegia vulgaris indicate no sexual connotation.
- lettuce seed: The seed in lettuce dries the sperm, quietens lasciviousness and the desire for intercourse. It is one of the cold foods that impedes, represses, and thickens semen and extinguishes lust. It represses desire for intercourse even more effectively if it is cooked with lentils.
- henbane juice anointment put on testicles: It extinguishes heat, erection, and lust. It contains the narcotic hyoscine and is an anaphrodisiac.
- willow seed: willow seed taken extinguishes lust
- colewort, rue, and St John's wort (agnus casti): eaten together as powder they put an end to lasciviousness. Rue (rute) is commonly cited as drying up the seed and removing all interest in sex.
The cause is probably the senescence of sexual organs and resultant inducible SASP, which also acts as a kind of non-diabetic metabolic syndrome.


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Re: Aphrodisiacs
« Reply #4 on: June 18, 2023, 12:24:32 PM »
Additional information pertaining to the aphrodisiac/anaphrodisiac issue.

There is a substantial body of evidence showing that dopaminergic (DA) agonists enhance and DA antagonists impair male sexual behavior. Experiments in which specific D1 or D2 DA receptors are selectively involved, or where local infusion of drugs or dialysis have allowed investigation of DA action in discrete areas of the brain, have contributed to a more complex picture of DA activity as it relates to male sexual behavior.
There is now a substantial body of evidence from studies of the male rat that drugs which increase serotonergic transmission inhibit and those which disrupt serotonergic transmission enhance male sexual behavior.
gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter widely though unevenly distributed in the mammalian CNS. Because of its ubiquitous nature it can be expected to play a role in inhibiting inhibitory as well as excitatory processes. This is well demonstrated by Gray's BIS, the effects of which can be reversed by drugs such as benzodiazepines which amplify effects of GABA by their action on the GABAA–benzodiazepine receptor complex. However, there is a consistent body of evidence showing that GABA and drugs with GABAergic effects, have an inhibitory effect on male sexual behavior in the rat and this may be particularly significant during the postejaculatory refractory period when levels of GABA in the CSF are raised. Stimulation of presumed GABAA receptors in the MPOA decreases the number of animals mounting and intromitting whereas blockade of GABAA sites decreases the post-ejaculatory interval. GABAB agonists injected intrathecally around the lumbo-sacral cord inhibit ex-copula reflexive erections without apparently interfering with mounting and intromission.
Clearly, among those various mechanisms is an effect of testosterone (T) on the medial pre-optic area (MPOA) and recent evidence suggests this might be via its enhancement of DA release, an effect which involves up-regulation of nitric oxide.
The possibility that testosterone might be necessary for the development of central arousal associated with sexual response is suggested by the findings of Davidson’s group that sexual behavior can be at least partially restored by administration of alpha-2 antagonists such as yohimbine.
Given the striking success with lesion experiments in identifying the MPOA as having a crucial role in sexual activation (i.e. consummatory and possibly appetitive behavior), comparable attempts have been made to locate inhibitory centers or systems.
Kim and Oh compared men with assumed psychogenic erectile dysfunction with poor response to intracavernosal injections (ICI) of papaverine to men without evidence of psychogenic ED, who showed full responses to the injection. They measured norepinephrine (NE) in the penile blood and found this to be significantly higher in the first group. This is consistent with an increased inhibitory tone in the erectile tissues being mediated, at least in part, by NE.
Once again there is a lack of well-controlled human studies, and the potential confounding factors in this group of subjects are considerable, but there seems little doubt that chronic opiate use is associated with a diminution of both sexual desire and sexual arousability, including ejaculation and orgasm. There is also well documented anecdotal evidence of a phase of 'rebound hypersexuality' during opiate withdrawal, sometimes with spontaneous orgasms.
In a group of six 'normal' men, effects were monitored of the opiate antagonist, naloxone, the a-2 antagonist yohimbine, and placebo, with each drug being administered separately and together. The combination of naloxone and yohimbine resulted in spontaneous and full penile erection lasting at least 60 min, an effect which was not reported when either drug was used alone. In addition, the drug combination produced increased anxiety and nausea. These results suggest an interaction between the two drugs which may reflect a balance between the inhibitory effects of neuropeptides and the arousing effects of NE.
The cause is probably the senescence of sexual organs and resultant inducible SASP, which also acts as a kind of non-diabetic metabolic syndrome.